Isaeva I.1, Korostyshevskaya A.1, Savelov A.1, Yarnykh V.2


Myelination is the third period of brain maturation, that begins in the second trimester of gestational development and lasts postnatally.

Purpose. Knowledge of prenatal myelination provides more complete understanding of the various intrauterine events and their impact on the postnatal development.


Non-invasive quantitative methods of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion-tensor imaging, MR-spectroscopy, and methods based on the effect of magnetization transfer can be used in brain myelination studies. This manuscript reviews the main capabilities of the above methods in quantitative imaging of myelin.


1 – International Tomography Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences.

Novosibirsk, Russia.


2 – Tomsk National State Research University. Tomsk, Russia.

Keywords: quantitative fetal MRI, myelination, fetal MRI, diffusion-weighted images, diffusion-tensor images, MR-spectroscopy, macromolecular proton fraction.

Corresponding author: Isaeva I., e-mail: Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript

For citation: Isaeva I., Korostyshevskaya A., Savelov A., Yarnykh V. Quantitative fetal MRI assessment of prenatal myelination. Systematic review. REJR 2020; 10(2):183-194. DOI:10.21569/2222-7415-2020-10-2-183-194.



Received:       14.03.20 Accepted:     19.06.20

Exploring the possibilities of Ultrasonic Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) in controlling the formation of bone calluses at different stages of its development.

Material and methods. A study of 51 patients (29 men, 22 women from 17 to 65 years) with fractures of long tubular bones of the upper and lower limbs was conducted. Ultrasound tests were performed on the SuperSonic Aixplorer (France) device with an assessment of tissue stiffness in the kPa and the use of multifrequency probes 2-15 MHz. In the area of the fracture scanned bone corn, surrounding soft tissues and vessels, excluded interposition. The formation of bone calluses was studied at different stages of its development, from 0-7 days to 6 months.

Results. According to the SWE, the most intensive increase in bone calluses is in the first 1.5 months after the fracture, followed by the build-up of bone calluses. For each stage of bone callos formation determined sensitivity, specificity of the method of SWE.

Discussion. The use of the SWE method to control the formation of bone calluses is possible from the first days after bone fracture. The stiffness of bone calluses at SWE is determined in the kPa. Ultrasound also allows you to study the condition of bone fragments, surrounding tissues and vessels. Conducting ultrasound with the use of SWE, dopplerography allows in dynamics to trace the formation of bone calluses in all three stages of its development.

Conclusion. SWE wave allows to determine the stiffness of the bone calluses in the dynamics, starting from the first days after the fracture and to its complete formation. SWE implements a new approach to assess the stiffness of bone calluses, which allows to get accurate quantitative results in real time. The sensitivity and specificity of the SWE in determining the stiffness of bone calluses is highest in the first – connective tissue stage of its formation (94% and 90% respectively).