Pomortsev A.V., Shevelev V.I., Baghdasaryan K.A.

Ultrasound diagnostics has consolidated its leading position in the diagnosis of carotid artery pathologies. The article presents a review of modern Russian and foreign literature about the amount of information that can be obtained by color duplex scanning of the carotid arteries. The definitions of the most common pathologies of the carotid arteries (atherosclerosis and dolichoarteriopathies) are given. Modern ideas about atherosclerotic plaques, methods of measuring the degree of vessel stenos and classifications of atherosclerotic plaques are presented. Also given modern ideas about the instability of atherosclerotic plaques. The most widespread and modern classifications of dolichoarteriopathies of carotid arteries, criteria of their hemodynamic importance are presented.


Kuban State Medical University of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation.


Krasnodar, Russia.

Keywords: carotid atherosclerosis, stenos of atherosclerotic plaque, instability of atherosclerotic plaque, dolichoarteriopathy, deformation of carotid arteries.

Corresponding author: Baghdasaryan K.A., e-mail: Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript

For citation: Pomortsev A.V., Shevelev V.I., Baghdasaryan K.A. Ultrasound diagnostics of carotid arteries pathologies. REJR 2020; 10(2):195-204. DOI:10.21569/2222-7415-2020-10-2-195-204.



Received:       19.12.19 Accepted:     21.02.20

Exploring the possibilities of Ultrasonic Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) in controlling the formation of bone calluses at different stages of its development.

Material and methods. A study of 51 patients (29 men, 22 women from 17 to 65 years) with fractures of long tubular bones of the upper and lower limbs was conducted. Ultrasound tests were performed on the SuperSonic Aixplorer (France) device with an assessment of tissue stiffness in the kPa and the use of multifrequency probes 2-15 MHz. In the area of the fracture scanned bone corn, surrounding soft tissues and vessels, excluded interposition. The formation of bone calluses was studied at different stages of its development, from 0-7 days to 6 months.

Results. According to the SWE, the most intensive increase in bone calluses is in the first 1.5 months after the fracture, followed by the build-up of bone calluses. For each stage of bone callos formation determined sensitivity, specificity of the method of SWE.

Discussion. The use of the SWE method to control the formation of bone calluses is possible from the first days after bone fracture. The stiffness of bone calluses at SWE is determined in the kPa. Ultrasound also allows you to study the condition of bone fragments, surrounding tissues and vessels. Conducting ultrasound with the use of SWE, dopplerography allows in dynamics to trace the formation of bone calluses in all three stages of its development.

Conclusion. SWE wave allows to determine the stiffness of the bone calluses in the dynamics, starting from the first days after the fracture and to its complete formation. SWE implements a new approach to assess the stiffness of bone calluses, which allows to get accurate quantitative results in real time. The sensitivity and specificity of the SWE in determining the stiffness of bone calluses is highest in the first – connective tissue stage of its formation (94% and 90% respectively).