MAMMOGRAPHIC DENSITY AND RISK OF BREAST CANCER                                                               (A LOOK AT THE HISTORY OF STUDYING THE ISSUE)

Labazanova P. G., Rozhkova N. I., Burdina I. I., Zapirova S. B., Mazo M. L.,


Mikushin S. Yu., Prokopenko S. P., Jacobs O. E.

Purpose. Mammographic density (MD), according to NCCN (2017), is an important independent risk factor for breast cancer. Numerous studies of a number of other risk factors for breast cancer – age, family predisposition, features of histological structure, the influence of hormones, menopause, nutrition, weight, height, metabolism, alcohol, race – showed the independence of the MD factor and the relationship of its increase with an increase in the risk of breast cancer in 3-6 times. At the same time, increased MD is significantly associated with the presence of not only malignant carcinomas in situ, invasive breast cancer, but also benign proliferative and non-proliferative breast diseases.


Conclusion. For practical medicine, it is important to take into account the severity of MD to exclude interval cancer, reducing the time between rounds of oncomammoscreening, as well as timely treat benign diseases accompanied by high MD in order to prevent breast cancer.


P. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Institute, branch of the National Research Radiological Centre.


Moscow, Russia.


Krasnodar, Russia.

Keywords: mammographic density, mammary gland, benign diseases, malignant diseases.

Corresponding author: Labazanova P.G., e-mail: Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript

For citation: Labazanova P. G., Rozhkova N. I., Burdina I. I., Zapirova S. B., Mazo M. L.,

Mikushin S. Yu., Prokopenko S. P., Jacobs O. E. Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer (a look at the history of studying the issue). REJR 2020; 10(2):205-222. DOI:10.21569/2222-7415-2020-10-2-205-222.



Received:       27.01.20 Accepted:     21.02.10

Exploring the possibilities of Ultrasonic Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) in controlling the formation of bone calluses at different stages of its development.

Material and methods. A study of 51 patients (29 men, 22 women from 17 to 65 years) with fractures of long tubular bones of the upper and lower limbs was conducted. Ultrasound tests were performed on the SuperSonic Aixplorer (France) device with an assessment of tissue stiffness in the kPa and the use of multifrequency probes 2-15 MHz. In the area of the fracture scanned bone corn, surrounding soft tissues and vessels, excluded interposition. The formation of bone calluses was studied at different stages of its development, from 0-7 days to 6 months.

Results. According to the SWE, the most intensive increase in bone calluses is in the first 1.5 months after the fracture, followed by the build-up of bone calluses. For each stage of bone callos formation determined sensitivity, specificity of the method of SWE.

Discussion. The use of the SWE method to control the formation of bone calluses is possible from the first days after bone fracture. The stiffness of bone calluses at SWE is determined in the kPa. Ultrasound also allows you to study the condition of bone fragments, surrounding tissues and vessels. Conducting ultrasound with the use of SWE, dopplerography allows in dynamics to trace the formation of bone calluses in all three stages of its development.

Conclusion. SWE wave allows to determine the stiffness of the bone calluses in the dynamics, starting from the first days after the fracture and to its complete formation. SWE implements a new approach to assess the stiffness of bone calluses, which allows to get accurate quantitative results in real time. The sensitivity and specificity of the SWE in determining the stiffness of bone calluses is highest in the first – connective tissue stage of its formation (94% and 90% respectively).