Halah Abbas Husseien, Hanaa Khazaal Jaber, Farah Taha


College of Dentistry, University of Basrah. Basrah, Iraq.


he mandibular notch is located on the superior margin, between two prominent processes of the mandibular ramus, the coronoid and condylar processes. The mandibular notch permits the entry of the masseteric artery, vein and nerve to the deep surface the masseteric muscle.

Purpose. This study was conducted to evaluate different morphological variations of the mandibular notch shape by using panoramic X-ray and the deviations of the mandibular notch characters among different age groups.

Materials and methods. The study sample consists of 170 cases of both sexes, aged 18-88 years, who underwent panoramic X-ray imaging. The mandibular notch shape was categorized into three basic types (round shape, triangular shape, wide shape) based on the radiographic images, and the distribution of each type among the age groups was calculated.

Results. The results show that the most common mandibular notch shape is the wide shape (70.8%) in females followed by round shape (45.3%) in males. Also the triangular shape is the most public in young group (64%) followed by round shape in adult group (18.2%), the round morphology is also regularly public in old group (25.5%).

Discussion. The orthopantomogram (OPG) is the most common dental diagnostic tool. Although OPG has disadvantages of magnification, distortion, superimposition and misrepresentation of structures, however with low radiation dose and low cost. The study showed that round shape of mandibular notch was more common. In this study the mandibular notch was divided into three shapes: shape I triangular, shape II rounded and type III truncated quadrilateral. The triangular shape were found in 46% of sides and truncated quadrilateral shape form 20% of sides, they are mostly common in males, while the rounded shape was founded in 34% of sides, with females being the predominant gender.

Conclusions. The panoramic X-ray imaging is a reliable method for assessing mandibular notch shape and the findings can be useful in planning surgical procedures such as mandibular reconstruction and orthognathic surgery, in addition it may also aid forensic anthropologists in the identification of unknown remains.


Keywords: mandible, panoramic radiography, sigmoid notch, mandibular notch, masseteric artery.


Corresponding author: Halah Abbas Husseien, Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript ;

For citation: Halah Abbas Husseien, Hanaa Khazaal Jaber, Farah Taha. The variations of mandibular notch shape  by using panoramic x-ray in patients attending dental clinics: a cross-sectional study. REJR 2024; 14(1):81-88 DOI: 10.21569/2222-7415-2024-14-1-81-88.

Received:        31.12.23 Accepted:       20.02.24